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What is the biggest encounter for universities?

In the era of a knowledge-based society, our universities—perhaps not only in the developing countries, but also experienced by universities in other developed countries—experience and are in a stressful situation. The question is why are our universities under pressure? Several things put our university institutions under pressure. Universities are now in a turbulence situation

What is the biggest encounter for universities?
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First, we often—as university administrators—do not understand well the principles of university institutions. University institutions are not ordinary institutions. It is also not a trading agency. University institutions are educational institutions, civilizations. That's why, our negligence in understanding university principles will change the face of universities from institutions that maintain and develop human civilization, into practical institutions that want to meet the practical needs of society.

Second, the situation that develops outside the university institution demands various things. There is a change in the demands of society because people are faced with a situation where they must be able to get along and enter into that change. Some of our society is now starting to be in a 'knowledge-based society', which results in university institutions that are managed traditionally (as they are now) already considered 'out of date', unsold, and even abandoned by people. Thus, there is tremendous pressure on our university institutions.

The challenges faced by universities are in the form of macro and micro-challenges. At the macro level, universities are faced with globalization in various sectors and internationalization. At the micro-level, there is a change in the ideology of higher education management and demands to become an entrepreneurial university.

Challenges due to the swift currents of globalization are characterized by a borderless world, diversification of goods and services, expansion of social and cultural values, the occurrence of a world market due to advances in ICT, changes in "funding regimes", and changes in higher education organizations. Meanwhile, internationalization provides opportunities and opportunities for universities to exchange ideas between academics across countries, sharing in science and technology, exchange of experts and students.

Internal challenges are in the form of new changes in higher education management which are characterized by; i) The idea of higher education is managed in a business manner like a company (Corporate University); ii) Higher education funding by the public; and iii) College work is more practical, such as working on projects. Another challenge is the desire of university residents to make the institution an entrepreneurial university. Various internal reforms to increase institutional capacity were implemented; competitive-driven reform, finance-driven reform, equity-driven reform, and accountability-driven reform.

In anticipation of such challenges, universities will try to adapt or even integrate with the demands of the education market. Leaders compete to make their institutions into universities with ideal figures as stated by Barnett (2000) to characterize universities with characteristics; i) Critical inter-disciplinarity; ii) Collective self-scrutiny; iii) Purposive renewal; iv) Moving borders; v) Engagement; and vi) Communicative Tolerance.

Many universities are interested in improving themselves in almost all sectors within the institution. Quality has begun to be addressed, both in terms of teaching staff and education staff. Professionalism has become an interesting and growing discourse among members of the academic community. Infrastructure also received considerable attention. Educational facilities and infrastructure can no longer be ignored because they will support quality improvement in the teaching and learning process. The laboratory was improved and even increased its status from 'teaching laboratory' to 'research laboratory'. The library is perfected. Education financing is the main discourse of university administrators. The collection of books and journals is equipped with the latest scientific developments. The way of interaction between teaching staff must also be improved from a bank-style education method to a participatory-critical education.

University management has also undergone adjustments, which previously only managed students who came to the institution, now change to a management system that is 'market oriented'. Universities market their institutions through advertisements in various electronic media, mass media by promising various incentives. Likewise with leadership in a university. There are new demands for models, styles, forms of leadership that are completely different from what has been or is being practiced today. University leadership is one of the main keys that will determine the success or failure of a university to make changes to anticipate the demands of the education market.


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